Online Sources

The examples found in the APA section are based on the style guide Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed., 2010 and the APA Style Guide to Electronic References, 6th ed., 2012.

To cite a source you found online, follow the format and examples below.

Tip: If you’re looking at an online journal, magazine, or newspaper article, please refer to the Articles section. If it’s an online book, see the Books section, and for an online government report, go to the Government documents section.

Basic format
Document from a website
Whole website
Blog, discussion group or forum posting
Online video
Online images
E-mail
Tweet

Basic format

Author Last Name, Initials. (Date material published or posted). Title of document [Format, if necessary]. Retrieved from http://xxxxxx

  • If there is no author, place the title in the author position.
  • If there is no publication date, use n.d.
  • If the document is likely to change (like in the case of wikis), include the date of retrieval: Retrieved Month Day, year, from http://xxxxxxx

Document from a website

  • For content that is published frequently, include the year, month and day for the date of publication.
  • When there is no author, put the title of the document in the author position, followed by the date.

Format:

Author Last Name, Initials. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxx

Examples:

Carvey, I. (2008, January 2). The history of Africville as told by the people of Africville. Retrieved from https://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/northern-star/033005-2601-e.html

Young brain develops activity peaks while it is still growing. (2012, November 7). Retrieved from http://www.utwente.nl/en
/archive/2012/11/young_brain_develops_activity_peaks_while
_it_is_still_growing.docx

Whole website

  • When you use an entire website and not just a part of it (a specific idea, document, page, posting, etc.), you do not have to include it in your list of references. Simply add the web address to your text.

Example:

The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health website (http://www.camh.net) reflects the amalgamation of the Addiction Research Foundation and The Clarke Institute of Psychiatry at the University of Toronto.

Blog, discussion group or forum posting

  • If the author’s full name is not indicated, use what is available. If the author uses a screen name for posting, indicate the screen name as the author in the citation.
  • Indicate the type of format in brackets after the title. The type of format could be Blog post, Blog comment, Online forum comment, etc.
  • Include the name of the website in the retrieval section of your citation if this information is not part of the URL (web address). Use the following format: Retrieved from Site Name: http://xxxxxxxx

Format:

Author Last Name, Initials. (Date of posting). Title [Format]. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxx

Example:

Gillian. (2012, February 13). Katherine Howard – some misconceptions [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://harlotsharpiesharridans.com/blog/2012/02/13/katherine-howard

Online video

  • The person who posted the video is considered the author. If both the author’s real name and user name are available, include the user name in square brackets. When there is only a user name place it in the author position without the brackets.

Format

Author’s Last Name, Inititals. [User name]. (Year, Month  Day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxxx

Example:

minutephysics. (2012, November 11). Open letter to the President: Physics education [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BGL22PTIOAM&feature=g-logo-xit

Online images

  • Many online images are missing the name of the author and title. In this case move the description, in brackets, to the author position as follows:  [Photograph of lake]. (2001). Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxx

Format

Author Last Name, Initials. (Date of publication). Title [Description]. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxx

Example:

Misrack, R. (1998). Swamp and pipeline, Geismar, Louisiana [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://discovermagazine.com/galleries/zenphoto/p/petrochemical#.ULd__eTAcbA

E-mail

  • E-mail is considered a form of personal communication (along with private letters, personal interviews, memos, etc.) and is not included in the reference list. This type of source is included only in your text.
  • Give the author’s last name and initials as well as the most exact date possible.

Example:

One of his colleagues admitted that the research was creating a lot of discussion (J. Doyle, personal communication, May 15, 2008).

Tweet

  • To find the web address of a tweet, first, expand the tweet. Then, click on “Details” (found after the date).
  • If only the screen name is available include it without the brackets.

Format:

Author Last Name, Initials. [Screen name]. (Date of posting). Entire text of the tweet [Tweet]. Retrieved from http://twitter.com/xxxxxxx

Example:

Evans, D. [DavidEvans_ROM]. (2102, November 8). #Alberta #dinosaur hunter Dr. Philip Currie receives national honour: cbc.sh/sE5wzRk [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/DavidEvans_ROM/status/266558230447140865

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