Online Sources

The examples found in the APA section are based on the style guide Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed., 2010 and the APA Style Guide to Electronic References, 6th ed., 2012.

Basic format

Author Last Name, Initials. (Date material published or posted). Title of document [Format, if necessary]. Retrieved from http://xxxxxx

  • If there is no author, place the title in the author position.
  • If there is no publication date, use n.d.
  • If the document is likely to change (ex: wikis), include the date of retrieval: Retrieved Month Day, year, from http://xxxxxxx

Note: If you’re looking at an online journal, magazine, or newspaper article please refer to the Articles section. If it’s an online book, see the Books section, and for an online government report, go to the Government documents section.

Document from a website


Author Last Name, Initials. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxx

For content that is published more frequently include the year, month and day for the date of publication.


Carvey, I. (2008, January 2). The history of Africville as told by the people of Africville. Retrieved from

When there is no author put the title of the document in the author position, followed by the date.

Young brain develops activity peaks while it is still growing. (2012, November 7). Retrieved from

Whole website

When citing an entire website and not just a part of it (a specific idea, document, page, posting, etc.) do not include it in your list of references. Simply add the web address to your text.


The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health website ( reflects the amalgamation of the Addiction Research Foundation and The Clarke Institute of Psychiatry at the University of Toronto.

Blog, discussion group or forum posting


Author Last Name, Initials. (Date of posting). Title [Format]. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxx

The type of format could be Blog post, Blog comment, Online forum comment, etc.

Include the name of the website in the retrieval section of your citation if this information is not part of the URL (web address): Retrieved from Site Name website: http://xxxxxxxx


Gillian. (2012, February 13). Katherine Howard – some misconceptions [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Note: If the author’s full name is not indicated, use what is available. If the author uses a screen name for posting, indicate the screen name as the author in the reference.

Online video

The person who posted the video is considered the author. If both the author’s real name and user name are available, include the user name in square brackets. When there is only a user name place it in the author position without the brackets.


Author’s Last Name, Inititals. [User name]. (Year, Month  Day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxxx


minutephysics. (2012, November 11). Open letter to the President: Physics education [Video file]. Retrieved from

Online images


Author Last Name, Initials. (Date of publication). Title [Description]. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxx

Many online images are missing the name of the author and title. In this case move the description, in brackets, to the author position:  [Photograph of lake]. (2001). Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxx


Misrack, R. (1998). Swamp and pipeline, Geismar, Louisiana [Photograph]. Retrieved from


E-mail is considered a form of personal communication (along with private letters, personal interviews, memos, etc.) and is not included in the reference list. This type of source is included only in your text.

Give the author’s last name and initials as well as an exact a date as possible.


One of his colleagues admitted that the research was creating a lot of discussion (J. Doyle, personal communication, May 15, 2008).

A tweet

To find the web address of a tweet first expand the tweet and then click on “Details” (found after the date).


Author Last Name, Initials. [Screen name]. (Date of posting). Entire text of the tweet [Tweet]. Retrieved from

If only the screen name is available include it without the brackets.


Evans, D. [DavidEvans_ROM]. (2102, November 8). #Alberta #dinosaur hunter Dr. Philip Currie receives national honour: [Tweet]. Retrieved from


Other Resources

For more examples visit the OWL (Online Writing Lab) at Purdue University.

Guide to formatting in APA style using Word (Northeast Wisconsin Technical College).