Chicago uses a notes and bibliography style. For a sample paper in Chicago style visit the Purdue University Online Writing Lab.

The text in the paper will have a superscript number at the end of the cited material. This number refers to a note with the corresponding number found either at the bottom of the page (footnotes) or at the end of the paper (endnotes). In the notes the number is full size and followed by a period. However it is acceptable to have superscript numbers in both the text and the notes. Indent the first line of the footnote. Leave a blank line between entries.

For a guide on inserting footnotes in Word, visit the Microsoft Support page.

A bibliography may be required and comes at the end of the document. The entries are in alphabetical order by author (or by title if there is no author). If your bibliography entry is longer than one line, indent the second and subsequent lines. Leave a blank line between entries.



Anthropological research has provided “ecologically insightful accounts of native views of the natural world.”¹³


13. Peter Knudson and David Suzuki, Wisdom of the Elders (Toronto: Stoddart, 1992), 23.


Knudson, Peter and David Suzuki. Wisdom of the Elders. Toronto: Stoddart, 1992.

Two or more citations from the same source

Use the short form of a note when citing  a work that has previously been cited in full. Include author’s last name and abbreviated title. Note 3 is the short form for the source cited in note 1. Note 4 is the short form for the source cited in note 2.

1. Howard C. Anawalt, Idea Rights: A Guide to Intellectual Property (Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2011), 103.

2. Peter Knudson and David Suzuki, Wisdom of the Elders (Toronto: Stoddart, 1992), 75-6.

3. Anawalt, Idea Rights, 95.

4. Knudson and Suzuki, Wisdom of the Elders, 23.

If you cite the same work as in the note immediately preceding, use “Ibid.” (meaning “in the same place”).

5. Ibid., 36-40.