Web Documents

The examples found in the Chicago section are based on the style guide The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed., 2010.

Basic format

Include the author of the content, the title of the web page, the title or owner of the site, and the URL (web address). Also include either a publication date, date of revision or date of modification. If no such date is given, include an access date. Students are usually required to include an access date for all online material.


1. Author First Name Last Name, “Title of Document,” Title or Owner of Website, Publication date, access date, URL.


Author Last Name, First Name. ”Title of Document.” Title or Owner of Website. Publication date. Access date. URL.

Note: If you’re looking at an online journal, magazine, or newspaper article please refer to the Articles section. If it’s an online book, see the Books section, and for an online government report, go to the Government documents section.

Document from a website

If there is no author, begin the citation with the owner or sponsor of the site (see example 2) or the title of the document (see example 3).


1. Irvine Carvey,The History of Africville as Told by the People of Africville,” Library and Archives Canada, January 2, 2008, accessed May 20, 2012, https://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/northern-star/033005-2601-e.html.

2. The World Bank Group, “Urban Poverty and Slum Upgrading,” The World Bank, accessed January 31, 2013, http://go.worldbank.org/D7G2Q70170.

3. “Using Your Entire Livingroom as a Screen,”  University of Twente, March 20, 2013, accessed April 15, 2013, http://www.utwente.nl/en/archive/2013/03


Carvey, Irvine. “The History of Africville as Told by the People of Africville.” Library and Archives Canada. January 2, 2008. Accessed May 20, 2012. https://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/northern-star/033005-2601-e.html.

The World Bank Group. “Urban Poverty and Slum Upgrading.” The World Bank. Accessed January 31, 2013. http://go.worldbank.org/D7G2Q70170.

“Using Your Entire Livingroom as a Screen.” University of Twente. March 20, 2013. Accessed April 15, 2013. http://www.utwente.nl

Blog entry

Chicago style prefers that blog entries be mentioned only in the notes. However your teacher may request that you include them in both the notes and the bibliography.

Include the author, title of the blog entry, title or description of the blog, date, access date and URL. Give the author’s name as listed even if it’s a pseudonym. The blog title is in italics. Add (blog) after the title of the blog (unless the word “blog” is in the title). If the blog is a part of a larger publication the citation should also include the name of that publication (see example 5).


4. Gillian, “Katherine Howard – Some Misconceptions,” Harlots, Harpies and Harridans (blog), February 13, 2012, accessed January 19, 2013, http://harlotsharpiesharridans.com/blog/2012/02/13

5. Richard Hétu, “Le dilemne nucléaire d’Obama,” Le blogue de Richard Hétu, La Presse, February 12, 2013, accessed March 1, 2013, http://blogues.lapresse.ca/hetu/.


Gillian. “Katherine Howard – Some Misconceptions.” Harlots, Harpies and Harridans (blog). February 2, 2012. Accessed January 19, 2013. http://harlotsharpiesharridans.com/blog/2012/02/13

Hétu, Richard. “Le dilemne nucléaire d’Obama.” Le blogue de Richard HétuLa Presse. February 12, 2013. Accessed March 1, 2013. http://blogues.lapresse.ca/hetu/.

Online video

The citation should include the creator, the title, the format or medium, the length, the date, the access date and the URL. If the online video is a recording of an original performance or a digitized version of an original recording, include information about this original source.


6. Allan Gregg, “Daniel Goleman Explains Emotional Intelligence,” YouTube video, 26:37, originally aired on TVO February 1999, posted March 13, 2012, accessed March 15, 2013, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NeJ3FF1yFyc.

7. Minute Physics, “Open Letter to the President: Physics Education,” YouTube video, 3:49, posted by “minutephysics,” November 11, 2012, accessed October 23, 2012, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BGL22PTIOAM.

8. Boghuma Kabisen Titanji, “Ethical Riddles in HIV Research,” filmed May 2012, TED video, 11:11, posted January 2013, accessed February 26, 2013, http://www.ted.com/talks/boghuma_kabisen_titanji_ethical


Gregg, Allan. “Daniel Goleman Explains Emotional Intelligence.” YouTube video, 26:37. Originally aired on TVO February 1999. Posted March 13, 2012. Accessed March 15, 2013. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NeJ3FF1yFyc.

Minute Physics. “Open Letter to the President: Physics Education.” YouTube video, 3:49. Posted by “minutephysics,” November 11, 2012. Accessed October 23, 2012.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BGL22PTIOAM.

Titanji, Boghuma Kabisen. ”Ethical Riddles in HIV Research.” Filmed May 2012. TED video, 11:11. Posted January 2013. Accessed February 26, 2013. http://www.ted.com/talks/boghuma_kabisen_titanji

Online images

Include the creator, title of the work (in italics), format or medium, the date of its creation, title or owner of the website, access date and the URL. If you are citing an online image of a work of art, such as a painting or a sculpture, include the location of where the work is housed.

Images are usually only cited in notes. Your teacher may request that they be included in the bibliography.


9. James Duncan, Burning of Hayes House, Dalhousie Square, Montreal, painting, 1852, McCord Museum, accessed January 15, 2013, http://www.mccord-museum.qc.ca/en/collection

10. Richard Misrack, Swamp and Pipeline, Geismar, Louisiana, photograph, 1998, Discover, accessed January 21, 2013, http://discovermagazine.com/galleries/zen-photo/p


Duncan, James. Burning of Hayes House, Dalhousie Square, Montreal. Painting. 1852. McCord Museum. Accessed January 15, 2013. http://www.mccord-museum.qc.ca/en/collection

Misrack, Richard. Swamp and Pipeline, Geismar, Louisiana. Photograph. 1998. Discover. Accessed January 21, 2013. http://discovermagazine.com/galleries


E-mail is considered a form of personal communication (along with private letters, personal interviews, memos, etc.) and is not included in the bibliography. This type of source is included only in the notes.

Give the author’s name as well as an exact a date as possible.


11. Janet Lebrun, e-mail message to author, May 15, 2010.

A tweet

Though the Chicago Manual of Style does not have a guide for tweets, we suggest that you use the following note format. To find the web address of a tweet first expand the tweet and then click on “Details” (found after the date). Twitter postings should be cited only in your notes.

You can also incorporate the tweet into your text: In a Twitter post on November 8, 2012, David Evans (@DavidEvans_ROM) wrote ….



12. David Evans, Twitter post, November 8, 2012, 7:10 a.m., accessed December 3, 2012, https://twitter.com/DavidEvans_ROM/status/266558230447140865.


For more examples visit the OWL (Online Writing Lab) at Purdue University or ask for help at the library reference desk.

Guide to inserting footnotes using Word (Microsoft Support).