MLA: In-Text Citations
The examples found in the MLA section are based on the manual MLA Handbook, 9th ed., 2021.
In-text citations must appear in your paper whenever you use information or ideas belonging to other people. The role of in-text citations is to give just enough details to point your reader to the complete citation found in your Works Cited list.
Levan explains that “violence is not condemned, and is often revered among inmates” (63). The prison environment is organized as a hierarchy where inmates have different roles depending on where they find themselves within this structure (Levan 42-43).
Anthropological research has provided “ecologically insightful accounts of native views of the natural world” (Knudtson and Suzuki 23).
This analysis of youth violence concludes that “girls commit a substantial amount of violence” (Esbensen et al. 69).
The report put out by the Canadian Institute for Health Information confirms “that the aging of Canada’s population will likely put pressure on the health care system to adapt to meet Canadians’ needs” (128).
This report confirms “that the aging of Canada’s population will likely put pressure on the health care system to adapt to meet Canadians’ needs” (Cdn. Inst. for Health Information 128). If the entry in the works cited page starts with the names of administrative units separated by commas include all the names in the parenthetical reference.
Canada’s National Council of Welfare report gathers ideas on how to deal with poverty.
The national report gathers ideas on how to deal with poverty (Canada, National Council of Welfare).
(Kitcher, Living with Darwin 104)
According to Kitcher, these principles would be difficult to define (Living with Darwin 104).
This is a very common scenario with websites. When no author can be found, the title of the work is used instead.
Nature Canada has taken a stand on the pipeline project (“Enbridge’s Pipeline”). Meanwhile, the city of Calgary has made large tracts of land available for development (“Regional” 1). In a blog post entitled “Say No to the Enbridge Pipeline”, anonymous local citizens express their concerns.
A recent study has found that sleep problems occur in 15% to 25% of youth (Cummings).
According to the geneticist Pamela Ronald, the genetically modified foods currently on the market are safe to eat.
Since many ancient civilizations knew that the Earth was round, we can conclude that “the modern Flat Earth movements that exist aren’t contiguous with any past movement” (“Flat Earth” 00:00:50).
The music video for the song “Take Me to Church” includes scenes of homophobic violence, meant to denounce religious attitudes towards the LGBT+ community (Hozier 00:01:35-00:02-40).
According to the words of Solomon: “Pride comes first; disgrace soon follows; with the humble is wisdom found” (The New Jerusalem Bible, Prov. 11. 2).
The researchers found that:
As long as programs target the known risk factors and adhere to the principles of effective intervention, youths should be affected in positive ways. Importantly, addressing even a few risk factors can have modest effects for youths who experience multiple risk factors in multiple domains. (Esbensen et al. 190)
French anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss refers to the worlds of the shaman and the scientist as “two parallel modes of acquiring knowledge about the universe” (qtd. in Knudtson and Suzuki 8).