APA: In-Text Citations

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The examples found in the APA section are based on the style guide Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed., 2020.

APA in-text citations use an author-date system. This means that if the author’s name is a part of the text, it is immediately followed by the date in parentheses. The page number comes at the end of the citation, in parentheses.

  • If the author is not named in the text, include the author’s name, the date and the page numbers in parentheses at the end of the cited material. This is known as a parenthetical reference.
  • If you are paraphrasing, you can simply add the author and date. Though APA encourages you to include a page number when paraphrasing, it is not required.
  • The in-text citation gives just enough details to point your reader to the source of information found in your list of references.

Examples

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